Fazenda Sao Nicolao, a Brazilian reforestation project is located in the Amazon rainforest. The 1,900 ha project is the first Brazilian forestry project to be certified by Verified Carbon Standard (VCS). Much of the project area was heavily deforested in the late 1980s and 90s for both cattle ranching and coffee production. As such, the project has pledged extensive afforestation, reforestation, and revegetation activities to increase the forest’s carbon stock and recover its invaluable biodiversity. The project is replanting, using a mix of 54 native species, an area of forest almost half the size of the island of Manhattan, and working to preserve an area of degraded rainforest approximately three times as large.